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Shemini

  
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 11:22
 11:23
11:22 Among these, you may [only] eat members of the red locust family, the yellow locust family, the spotted grey locust family, and the white locust family.
Et-eleh mehem tochelu et-ha'arbeh lemino ve'et-hasal 'am leminehu ve'et-hachargol leminehu ve'et-hechagav leminehu.
11:23 All other flying insects with four feet [for walking] must be avoided by you.
Vechol sherets ha'of asher-lo arba raglayim shekets hu lachem.



Commentary:

red locust
  Arbeh in Hebrew; grad in Arabic (Saadia). According to Yemenite traditions, this reddish locust is permitted (Yosef Kapach, Halikhoth Teimon, Jerusalem, 1968, p. 218). More generally, arbeh denotes the Sudanese or desert locust (Scistocerca gregaria) which reaches the Holy Land in large numbers.

yellow locust
  Sal'am in Hebrew; Rashona in Aramaic (Chullin 65a); daba or dabai in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). The yellow locust is permitted according to Yemenite tradition (Halikhoth Teimon). The Talmud describes the sal'am as having a head which is bald in front (gabachath; see Leviticus 13:42) and long (Chullin 65b; Yad, Maakhaloth Assuroth 1:22; cf. Avodah Zarah 37a). It is therefore sometimes translated as 'bald locust' or 'long-headed locust.' This locust, the rashon, is said to resemble a human embryo in its first stages of development (Niddah 25a; Arukh).

spotted grey locust
  Chargol in Hebrew; nippulah in Aramaic; chartziyiya in Arabic, according to Yemenite tradition (Halikhoth Teimon). The Talmud describes this locust as having a tail (Chullin 65a); some therefore identify it with the long-horned grasshopper (tettigonidae), since the female has a long protuberance with which it lays eggs. The Septuagint translates chargol as ophiomaches which literally means 'snake fighter.' It may have been given this name because of its long snake-like body or tail. The name also denotes a large insect, perhaps a giant grasshopper, as is also suggested by its Aramaic name, nippulah, which suggests a nifla, Hebrew for giant. Its large eggs were used as amulets (Shabbath 6:10).

Some sources (King James; JPS) translate chargol as cricket, but this is incorrect, because the cricket is wingless, and the Talmud clearly states that all permitted locusts have wings that cover the body (Chullin 59a).

white locust
  Chagav in Hebrew; gandav in Arabic (Saadia). According to Yemenite tradition, this is a small white locust (Halikhoth Teimon). From scripture it also appears to be the smallest of the locusts (cf. Numbers 13:33).

All other...
  Even of the locust family. Since there are questions regarding identification, most Jews do not eat locusts at all (Turey Zahav, Yoreh Deah 85:1). According to Yemenite tradition, only locusts that come in swarms (cf. Proverbs 30:27) are permitted, but not those that live separately (Halikhoth Teimon). This would exclude most ordinary grasshopper species.





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