|Another name for Aram Naharaim, ie northern Mesopotamia.It is mentioned as the home of Abraham's family, especially Bethuel (eg Genesis 28:1-9).|
|Named Peniel by Jacob ('Divine Face'), after his struggles with the angel (Genesis 32:31). It is thought to be situated near Sukkoth, although its exact location is unknown; it is usually identified with Tulul ed-Dahab in modern-day Jordan.|
|Philistine Highway; Philistine Sea|
|1. Philistine Highway: when the Israelites left Egypt the land along the coastal strip between Egypt and Gaza was heavily populated by the Philistines: the Israelites were obliged to turn inland to avoid 'the way of the land of the Philistines' (Exodus 13:17). The part of the Mediterranean sea running parallel to this area was referred to as the sea of the Philistines (Exodus 23:31). It is now thought that the Philistines did not settle in this area until after the Exodus, so the name was used in a retrospective sense.
2. Philistine Sea: this is mentioned at Exodus 23:31, and is thought to mean the Mediterranean Sea.|
|One of the four major rivers of Paradise (Eden). It is thought to be either the Nile, the Ganges, the Indus or the Karun (Genesis 2:11).|
|Egyptian city where the Israelites had to work as forced labourers (Exodus 1:11), situated south-west of Sukkoth. Pithom was one of the store cities constructed by the Hebrews: see also Ra'amses. Its location is probably Wadi Tumilat, at Tel el-Maskhuta or Tel er-Retaba.|
|Place where the Israelites camped in the Wilderness, lying in the copper-mining area of Edom. Here they were bitten by poisonous snakes (Numbers 21:6; Numbers 33:42-3).|