The New Census: Reuben
||It was now after the plague. God spoke to Moses and Eleazar (son of Aaron the Priest), saying,
||'Take a census of the entire Israelite community by paternal lines, [counting] every male over 20 years old who is fit for duty.'
||Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke to [the Israelites] in the Western Plains of Moab near the Jordan [opposite] Jericho, saying,
||'[Count] those over 20 years old, just as God commanded Moses and the Israelites who had left Egypt.'
||Reuben was Israel's first-born. The descendants of Reuben were the Enochite family from Enoch, the Paluite family from Palu,
||the Chetzronite family from Chetzron, and the Karmite family from Karmi.
||These were the Reubenite families, and their tally was 43,730.
||The sons of Palu: Eliav.
||The sons of Eliav: Nemuel, Dathan and Aviram. Dathan and Aviram were the communal leaders who led a revolution against Moses and Aaron as part of Korach's rebellion against God.
||The earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and Korach when the [rebellious] group died and fire annihilated 250 men. This involved a divine miracle.
||The sons of Korach, however, did not die.
||By families, the descendants of Simeon were the Nemuelite family from Nemuel, the Yaminite family from Yamini, the Yakhinite family from Yakhin,
||the Zarchite family from Zerach, and the Saulite family from Saul.
||These are the families of Simeon, [numbering] 22,200.
||By families, the descendants of Gad were the Tzefonite family from Tzefon, the Chaggite family from Chaggi, the Shunite family from Shuni,
||the Aznite family from Azni, the Erite family from Eri,
||the Arodite family from Arod, and the Arelite family from Areli.
||These are the families of Gad's descendants, their tally being 40,500.
||The [first] sons of Judah were Er and Onan, but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan.
||By families, then, the descendants of Judah were the Shelanite family from Shelah, the Partzite family from Peretz, and the Zarchite family from Zerach.
||The descendants of Peretz were the Chetzronite family from Chetzron, and the Chamulite family from Chamul.
||These are the families of Judah, their tally being 76,500.
||By families, the descendants of Issachar were the Tolaite family from Tola, the Punite family from Puva.
||the Yashuvite family from Yashuv, and the Shimronite family from Shimron.
||These are the families of Issachar, their tally being 64,300.
||By their families, the descendants of Zebulun were the Sardite family from Sered, the Elonite family from Elon, and the Yachlielite family from Yachliel.
||These are the families of Zebulun, their tally being 60,500.
||By their families, the descendants of Joseph were Manasseh and Ephraim.
||The descendants of Manasseh consisted of the Makhirite family from Makhir. Makhir's son was Gilead, and from Gilead came the family of the Gileadites.
||These were the descendants of Gilead: The Iyezerite family from Iyezer, the Chelekite family from Chelek,
||the Asrielite family from Asriel, the Shikhmite family from Shekhem,
||the Shemidaite family from Shemida, and the Chefrite family from Chefer.
||Chefer's son, Tzelafchad, did not have any sons, only daughters. The names of Tzelafchad's daughters were Machla, No'ah, Chaglah, Milkah and Tirtzah.
||These are the families of Manasseh, and their tally was 52,700.
||By their families, the descendants of Ephraim were the Shuthalchite family from Shuthelach, the Bakhrite family from Bekher, and the Tachanite family from Tachan.
||The descendants of Shuthelach consisted of the Eranite family from Eran.
||These are the families of Ephraim's descendants, their tally being 32,500. All these were the descendants of Joseph by their families.
||By their families, the descendants of Benjamin were the Bal'ite family from Bela, the Ashbelite family from Ashbel, the Achiramite family from Achiram,
||the Shefufamite family from Shefufam, and the Chufamite family from Chufam.
||The sons of Bela were Ard and Naaman. These gave rise to the Ardite family, and the Naamite family from Naaman.
||These are Benjamin's descendants by their families, and their tally was 45,600.
||By their families the descendants of Dan consisted of the Shuchamite family from Shucham. This was the only family of Dan.
||The tally of all the families of the Shuchamites was 64,400.
||By their families, the descendants of Asher were the Yimnah family from Yimnah, the Yishvite family from Yishvi, and the Beri'ite family from Beriah.
||The descendants of Beriah consisted of the Chevrite family from Chever, and the Malkielite family from Malkiel.
||The name of Asher's daughter was Serach.
||These are the families of Asher's descendants, their tally being 53,400.
||By their families, the descendants of Naphtali consisted of the Yachtzielite family from Yachtziel, the Gunite family from Guni,
||the Yitzrite family from Yetzer, and the Shilemite family from Shilem.
||These are the families of Naphtali, their tally being 45,400.
||The total tally of the Israelites was thus 601,730.
Dividing the Land
||God spoke to Moses, saying:
||Among these [people] you shall divide the land as an inheritance, following a number of names [recorded].
||To a larger [group] you shall give a larger inheritance, while to a smaller group, you shall give a smaller inheritance. Each one shall thus be given his hereditary property according to its tally.
||However, hereditary property shall be granted to paternal families through a lottery system. This is how the land shall be divided.
||Whether a group is large or small, its hereditary property shall be divided by a lottery system.
Tally of the Levites
||These are the tallies of the Levites by their families: the Gershonite family from Gershon, the Kehothite family from Kehoth, and the Merarite family from Merari.
||These are the sub-families of Levi: The Libnite family, the Chevronite family, the Machlite family, the Mushite family, and the Korchite family.
Kehoth had a son Amram.
||The name of Amram's wife was Yokheved, a daughter of Levi, who had been born to Levi in Egypt. She bore Amram's children, Aaron and Moses, as well as their sister Miriam.
||Born to Aaron were Nadav, Avihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
||Nadav and Avihu, however died when they offered unauthorized fire before God.
||Counting every male over one month old, the tally of [the Levites] was 23,000. They were not tallied among the other Israelites because they were not to be given hereditary property among the [other] Israelites.
||The above was the census that Moses and Eleazar the priest took of the Israelites in the Western Plains of Moab, on the Jericho section of the Jordan.
||Among those [counted now] there was no one [previously] counted by Moses and Aaron the priest, who had taken a census of the Israelites in the Sinai Desert.
||This was because God had decreed to them that they would all die in the desert, and that not a single man would survive, with the exception of Caleb son of Yefuneh, and Joshua son of Nun.
|after the plague|
The Midianites were not attacked until later, see Numbers 31:2 (Lekach Tov).
See Genesis 46:9, Exodus 6:14.
Chanokh in Hebrew.
In the first census, their number was 46,500 (Numbers 1:21), so they suffered a net loss of 2770 (Lekach Tov).
|Dathan and Aviram|
See Numbers 16:1, Deuteronomy 11:6.
|sons of Korach|
Assir, Elkana and Aviasaph (Exodus 6:24).
Of Simeon's sons, Ohad, mentioned in Genesis 46:10 and Exodus 6:15, is missing here. Some say that it is because he died childless (Lekach Tov). Others say that this family was wiped out in the desert (Rashi on 26:13; Midrash Aggadah; from Yerushalmi, Yoma 1:1, 2a), or during the plague that had just occurred (Rashi). According to others, this family became extinct in Egypt (Midrash Aggadah). The same is true of the other families mentioned in Genesis but not here.
Yemuel in Genesis 46:10 (Lekach Tov).
Tzohar in Genesis (Rashi).
In the first census, they were 59,300 (Numbers 1:23), so they suffered a loss of 37,100. Some say that since Zimri was of the tribe of Simeon, all 24,000 who died in the plague (Numbers 25:9) were from Simeon (Rashi; Lekach Tov). Thus, Simeon was the instigator of most of the rebellion in the desert (Ralbag).
See Genesis 46:16.
Tzefion in Genesis.
Or Ozni. Etzbon in Genesis.
Arodi in Genesis.
Down by 5150 from the first census, which showed 45,650. Reuben, Simeon and Gad were on the south side (Numbers 2:10-16), and this side suffered a net loss of 45,020.
|Er and Onan died...|
See Genesis 46:12.
Up by 1900 from the first census where it was 74,600.
See Genesis 46:13.
Puah in 1 Chronicles 7:1, and hence, 'the Punite.'
Yov in Genesis (q.v.).
Up 9900 from 54,400 in the first census (Numbers 1:27).
See Genesis 46:14.
Up 3100 from 57,400 in the first census (Numbers 1:31). Judah, Issachar and Zebulun were on the east side (Numbers 2:3-9) and this side had a net gain of 14,900.
See Genesis 50:23.
See Joshua 17:3, 1 Chronicles 2:21,23, 7:14,17.
Aviezer in Joshua 17:2, Judges 6:11,24,34, 8:2,32; Septuagint. Also see 1 Chronicles 7:18, 2 Samuel 23:27.
See Joshua 17:2.
See Joshua 17:2, 1 Chronicles 7:14.
See Joshua 17:2, 1 Chronicles 7:19. He may have been named after the city Shechem which was given to Joseph; Genesis 12:6, 48:22, Joshua 24:32. In Chronicles he is seen as a son of Shemida. Some, however, maintain that there were two different individuals with the name Shemida (Radak on Chronicles).
See Joshua 17:2, 1 Chronicles 7:19.
See Numbers, 27:1, Joshua 17:2,3, 1 Chronicles 11:36.
Or, Tzelofchad. See 1 Chronicles 7:15.
See Numbers, 27:1, 36:2,6, Joshua 17:3, 1 Chronicles 7:15.
See Numbers 27:11, 36:11, Joshua 17:3.
Up 20,500 from 32,200 in the first census (Numbers 1:35).
He had other sons who were killed; 1 Chronicles 7:21. Also see Septuagint, Genesis 46:20.
An ancestor of Joshua; 1 Chronicles 7:20,21.
See note on Genesis 46:21.
A possible ancestor of Joshua, see 1 Chronicles 7:25.
Some identify him with Beriah in 1 Chronicles 7:23 (Malbim).
Down 8000 from 40,500 in the first census (Numbers 1:33).
See Genesis 46:21.
Echi in Genesis.
Muppim in Genesis
Chuppim in Genesis.
|Ard and Naaman|
Although they are listed as sons of Benjamin, the Septuagint in Genesis amends the text, having them as Bela's sons. Others say that Benjamin actually had sons Ard and Naaman, but that those families became extinct; the families Ard and Naaman here are not the same as those in Genesis (HaKethav VeHaKabbalah).
Up 10,200 from 35,400 in the first census (Numbers 1:37). Manasseh, Ephraim and Benjamin were on the west side (Numbers 2:18-24), and their number increased by 22,700.
Chushim in Genesis 46:23.
Up 1700 from 62,700 in the first census (Numbers 1:39).
See Genesis 46:17.
See 1 Chronicles 7:31,32.
See 1 Chronicles 7:31.
She is mentioned in Genesis 46:17 as one of the people who came to Egypt. According to Talmudic tradition, she was still alive at this time (cf. Targum Yonathan).
Up 11,900 from 41,500 in the first census (Numbers 1:41).
See Genesis 46:24.
There are a total of 57 families mentioned here (Chizzkuni).
Down 8000 from 53,400 in the first census (Numbers 1:43). Dan, Asher and Naphtali were on the north side (Numbers 2:25-31), and they had a net gain of 5600.
Down 1820 from 603,550 in the first census (Numbers 1:46). From all four camps, we have, -45,020 + 14,900 + 22,700 + 5,600 = -1820.
Family (Chizzkuni) or tribe (Rashi; Saadia).
There were two baskets of slips, one with the names of tribes, and the other with the names of land areas. These would be chosen in pairs to determine which area went to each tribe (Bava Bathra 120a; Rashi). Some say that the land was originally divided into 12 equal parts for the lottery, and then each portion was increased or decreased, depending upon the tribes' populations (HaGra on Joshua 17:14; HaKethav VeHaKabbalah). Also see Numbers 33:54, Joshua 14:2, 19:51.
From Gershon, Numbers 3:18.
From Chevron (Hebron), son of Kehoth; Numbers 3:19.
From Merari; Numbers 3:20.
From Merari; Numbers 3:20.
From Korach, son of Yitzhar, son of Kehoth; Exodus 6:21 (Ibn Ezra). Missing are the families of Shimi from Gershon (Numbers 3:18), and Uzziel from Kehoth (Numbers 3:19), and the other sons of Yitzhar (Exodus 6:21) (Rashi). It is possible that these families became extinct in the desert (Yerushalmi, Yoma 1:1, 2a).
See Exodus 6:20.
Or, 'granddaughter' (see ibid.).
|who had been born|
Or, 'whom Othah had born to Levi' (Baaley Tosafoth).
Up 1000 from 22,000 in the first census (Numbers 3:39).
See Numbers 1:1,2.