These are the names of the tribes of Esau, according to their families in their respective areas, named after [individuals]: The tribe of Timna, the tribe of Alvah, the tribe of Yetheth,
Ve'eleh shemot alufey Esav lemishpechotam limekomotam bishmotam aluf Timna aluf Alvah aluf Yetet.
||the tribe of Oholibamah, the tribe of Elah, the tribe of Pinon,
Aluf Aholivamah aluf Elah aluf Pinon.
||the tribe of Kenaz, the tribe of Teman, the tribe of Mibtzar,
Aluf Knaz aluf Teyman aluf Mivtsar.
The same word, aluf, is used here as above, but here the meaning is somewhat different. If aluf above would be translated as 'duke,' here it would be translated as 'dukedom' (cf. Rashi; Ibn Ezra). Some say that these are the chiefs that ruled after the period of the kings (Ramban; Ralbag; Radak; cf. 1 Chronicles 1:51, Targum ad loc.). This, however, would be impossible to reconcile with the above chronology, since these chiefs would have lived after the Torah was given (see note on Genesis 36:31). According to this second opinion, the alufim mentioned here may be individuals. They also may be the tribes that survived until the end of the period of kings, and existed in the time of Moses (cf. Rashbam).
|according to their families...|
Cf. Genesis 10:5,31.
Possibly a son of Eliphaz; cf. 1 Chronicles 1:36 (see Lekach Tov; Sekhel Tov; Rashbam; on Genesis 36:12). Timna was also the name of Eliphaz' concubine (Genesis 36:12,22), and the Timna here may have been a woman (Rashba, Bava Bathra 115b; cf. BaMidbar Rabbah 14:10; Ibn Ezra). Others say that this Timna was a son of Yeush (Genesis 36:14; Sefer HaYashar, p. 97).
Possibly the same as Alvan (Genesis 36:23). Others say that these were sons of Timna, and hence, tribes of Amalek (Genesis 36:12; Ibn Ezra). Another opinion is that Alvah was a son of Yeush (Sefer HaYashar, loc. cit.).
Possibly Yithran (Genesis 36:26). Others say that Yetheth was a son of Yeush (Sefer HaYashar).
This was the name of Esau's wife (Genesis 36:2,5,14). It is possible that she had a tribe named after her, particularly since she is treated specially with regard to the chiefs (Genesis 36:18). Some say that this Oholibamah was a woman chief (Rashba, Bava Bathra 115b). According to others, it was a man with this name (Ibn Ezra). Some say that he was a son of Yalam, son of Oholibamah (Genesis 36:14; Sefer HaYashar).
Possibly a son of Yalam (Sefer HaYashar). Some identify this tribe with the city of Elat (1 Samuel 17:2; cf. Deuteronomy 2:8, 2 Kings 14:22, 16:6).
Also a son of Yalam (Sefer HaYashar). This is associated with Punan in the Tzalmona area (Numbers 33:42; Sekhel Tov).
A son of Eliphaz (Genesis 36:11,15; Sekhel Tov). According to others, a son of Yalam (Sefer HaYashar). See Genesis 15:19.
A son of Eliphaz (Genesis 36:11,15; Sekhel Tov). According to others, a son of Korach (Genesis 36:14; Sefer HaYashar).
See Psalms 118:11 (cf. Sekhel Tov). A son of Korach (Sefer HaYashar).