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21:23 Sichon, however, did not let Israel pass through his territories. Instead, Sichon mustered up all his people, and went out to confront Israel in the desert. When he came to Yahatz, he attacked Israel.
Velo-natan Sichon et-Yisra'el avor bigvulo vaye'esof Sichon et-kol-amo vayetse likrat Yisra'el hamidbarah vayavo Yahtsah vayilachem beYisra'el.
21:24 Israel struck him down with the sword, and occupied his land from the Arnon to the Jabbok, as far as the [borders of] the Ammonites. The borders of the Ammonites, however, remained firm.
Vayakehu Yisra'el lefi-charev vayirash et-artso me'Arnon ad-Yabok ad-bney Amon ki az gvul bney Amon.


  (Targum) or Yahatzah (Septuagint). Yahatz is found in Isaiah 15:4, Jeremiah 48:34, while Yahatzah is in Deuteronomy 2:32, Judges 11:20, Jeremiah 48:21. It was assigned to Reuben (Joshua 13:18), and was a Levitical city (1 Chronicles 6:63). It can be identified with Jalul of Khirbet el-Teim, some 15 miles east of the Dead Sea's northern end, and 7 miles south of Cheshbon.

  Some say that Moses provoked the battle at God's command (Josephus, Antiquities 4:5:2; cf. Deuteronomy 2:24).

Israel struck...
  Josephus states that Sichon did not have the courage to battle the Israelites, and when the Amorites tried to stop for water, they were killed (Antiquities 4:5:2).

  See Genesis 32:23. The Jabbok runs parallel to the Arnon, some 50 miles to the north of it.

  See Genesis 19:38. Their territory was to the east of Sichon's land, beginning some 20 miles east of the Jordan. Ammon and Moab were cousins (Genesis 19:37,38), and hence their lands were originally next to each other. Some say that the Ammonites also had lands to the north of the Jabbok (Chizzkuni). The modern city of Aman, Jordan derives its name from Ammon.

remained firm
  (Targum). This was because God told the Israelites not to attack Ammon (Deuteronomy 2:19; Sefer HaYashar; Lekach Tov; Bachya). Others see Az here as a proper noun, which the Septuagint renders as Y'azer, see Numbers 21:32. The Torah is thus saying, 'Az was the border of Ammon.' Other sources apparently identify Az with Ar (Numbers 21:15, Lekach Tov ad loc.).

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