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 21:31  21:32
21:30 [Moab's] kingdom was obliterated [from] Cheshbon as far as Divon, and was laid waste as far as Nofech near Medeva.
Vaniram avad Cheshbon ad-Divon vanashim ad-Nofach asher ad-Meydva.
21:31 Israel thus settled in the Amorite territory.
Vayeshev Yisra'el be'erets ha'Emori.
21:32 Moses sent out men to reconnoiter Ya'azer, and they captured its surrounding villages, driving out the Amorites who lived there.
Vayishlach Moshe leragel et-Yazer vayilkedu bnoteyha vayoresh et-ha'Emori asher-sham.


  (Targum). Niram in Hebrew, from the root nir. Or, 'power' (Saadia), or, 'heir' (Baaley Tosafoth; Chizzkuni; Septuagint). Others see the word ve-niram here as coming from the root yarah, and meaning, 'and we cast them down, destroying Cheshbon,' and said by Moses (Rashbam; Ibn Ezra).

  A city some 3 miles north of the Arnon, and 12 miles east of the Jordan. This was later occupied by Gad (Numbers 32:34, 33:45); see note on Numbers 21:12. Also see Joshua 13:9,17, 48:18,22, Isaiah 15:2. Cheshbon was to the north of Sichon's kingdom, while Divon was to the south of his conquered territory.

  A place name (Targum; Saadia). Or, 'It was laid waste until bodies rotted as far as Medebha' (Targum Yonathan); or, 'Their women have further kindled a fire as far as Medebha' (Septuagint). Here, nofech is seen as meaning 'blown up' or 'swollen,' or, 'blown upon' to kindle a fire.

  A city 4 miles south of Cheshbon, on the King's Highway. See Joshua 13:9,16, Isaiah 15:2, 1 Chronicles 19:7. It appears that Sichon destroyed Moab's power as far south as Divon, but in the area immediately around Cheshbon, he killed all the inhabitants.

  A city just west of Rabbath Ammon, later on the eastern border of Gad (Joshua 13:25). It was built up by Gad (Numbers 31:35), and later became a Levitical city (Joshua 21:37, 1 Chronicles 6:66). See Numbers 21:24. It was apparently on the eastern boundary of Og's kingdom, near the Ammonite border (cf. 1 Maccabees 5:8).

  The spies (Rashi; Sforno; Sefer HaYashar). Some say that these were led by Caleb and Pinchas (Targum Yonathan). This occurred after the festival of Sukkoth, that is, around 23 Tishrei, some six weeks after the defeat of Sichon (BeMidbar Rabbah 19:33). According to some sources, it occurred somewhat after the defeat of Og (Sefer HaYashar).

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