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2:13 The name of the second river is Gihon. It surrounds the land of Cush.
Veshem hanahar hasheni Gichon hu hasovev et kol-erets Kush.
2:14 The name of the third river is the Tigris which flows to the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.
Veshem hanahar hashlishi Chidekel hu haholech kidemat Ashur vehanahar ha revi'i hu Ferat.


  Josephus identifies it with the Nile (Antiquities 1:1:3). Rabbi Aaron Marcus says that some identify it with the Amu-dar'ya, which flows from Afghanistan into the Aral Sea in Russia, and once flowed into the Caspian Sea (Keseth HaSofer 61a, 62a). He says that it also might be the Qezal Owzan River, which flows northward through Iran into the Caspian Sea, or the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates flowing through Syria.

  Usually translated as Ethiopia. Marcus identifies it with the land of Kassites, in the near east. The Kassites were an ancient dynastic family who lived in Babylonia, and are known to have ruled between 1761 and 1185 b.c.e. See note on Genesis 10:6.

  Hiddekel in Hebrew. In Arabic, the Tigris is the Dicle or Dijla (cf. Targum). See Daniel 10:4.

  P'rath in Hebrew. In Arabic, the Euphrates is currently known as the Firat, al Farat, and al Furat.

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