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Genesis Noach
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10:11 Asshur left that land, and he built Nineveh, Rechovoth Ir and Calach,
Min-ha'arets hahi yatsa Ashur vayiven et-Nineveh ve'et-Rechovot ir ve'et-Kalach.
10:12 as well as Resen, between Nineveh and Calach. [Nineveh] is a great city.
Ve'et-Resen beyn Nineveh uveyn Kalach hi ha'ir hagdolah.
10:13 Mitzraim fathered the Ludim, the Anamim, the Lehabhim, the Naftuchim,
UMitsrayim yalad et-Ludim ve'et-Anamim ve'et-Lehavim ve'et-Naftuchim.


  The ancient capital of Assyria, on the Tigris River. See Jonah 1:2, 2 Kings 19:36.

Rechovoth Ir
  Literally 'broad places of the city,' or 'avenues of the city.' The Talmud says that it is Euphrates of Mishan (Yoma 10a). Meshan or Mesene is the island formed by Euphrates, the Tigris and the Royal Canal. The Targum, however, translates it, 'avenues of the city.' Thus, it would not be a place name, but would denote the fact that Asshur built Nineveh as a city with avenues.

  This is a city a few miles south of Nineveh. Its modern name is Nimrud! The Talmud states that it is 'Borsof on the Euphrates' (Yoma 10a). This is Borsif or Borsippa, some 20 miles south of Babylon on the Euphrates. It is, however, a long distance from Nineveh. The Targum renders it Pariyoth of Charyoth, probably denoting Chadiyath in Assyria.

  The Targum renders this Martiorti or Mariotai. These are the people of Mareotis, a district in lower Egypt containing the town of Marea.

  See Genesis 10:22. Hebrew for Assyria. It also denotes a city on the Tigris River, some 50 miles south of Nineveh. The Talmud (Yoma 10a) identifies it with Selik, that is Seleucia. See Genesis 2:14.

  The Talmud identifies Resen with Aktispon or Ctesphon (Yoma 10a; cf. Tosafoth, Gittin 6a, s.v. U'MiBhey). See comment on Calneh. The Targum renders it Talsar or Talasar, see Targum on Isaiah 37:12, 2 Kings 19:12.

great city
  This refers to Nineveh (Yoma 10a; Rashi).

  The Targum renders this Givatai. This appears to be related to the name Gipt or Egypt, and also to the word Coptic, which denotes the ancient language of Egypt (cf. Megillah 18a, Sanhedrin 115a). Josephus, however, states that all the nations in this verse are unidentifiable.

  Literally 'fire people,' since their faces are like fire (Rashi). The Targum translates this name as Livvakai or Livkai, possibly a Lybian tribe. Josephus states that they are Lybians. See note on Genesis 10:6 regarding Put.

  The Targum translates this as Pontsikhnai or Pantsekhyaanaei, probably denoting Pentaschoinos. This is a district in Egypt later referred to as Dodekaschoinos.

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