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10:21 Sons were also born to Shem. He was the ancestor of the Hebrews, [and] the brother of Yefeth, the eldest.
UleShem yulad gam-hu avi kol-beney-Ever achi Yefet hagadol.
10:22 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram.
Beney Shem Eylam ve'Ashur ve'Arpachshad veLud va'Aram.
10:23 The sons of Aram were Utz, Chul, Gether, and Mash.
Uveney Aram Uts veChul veGeter vaMash.
10:24 Arpachshad had a son Shelach. Shelach had a son Eber.
Ve'Arpachshad yalad et-Shalach veShelach yalad et-Ever.


  (Cf. Targum Yonathan; Ibn Ezra). Literally, 'the sons of Eber' (see Genesis 10:24, 11:14). In Hebrew, 'Hebrews' are Ivri'im, literally, 'Eberites,' or 'Sons of Eber.' Others, however, translate this verse, 'sons of all who live on the other side of the river' (Rashi; Ramban).

the eldest
  This refers to Yefeth (see note on Genesis 9:24). However, according to those who maintain that Shem was the eldest, the verse should be translated, 'the older brother of Yefeth.'

  See Genesis 14:19. It is associated with Media (Isaiah 21:2, Jeremiah 25:25). We thus find that the capital city of Shushan (Susa) was in the province of Elam on the Ulai River (Daniel 8:2). Josephus thus writes that Elam was the ancestor of the Persians. It is thus described as the territory between Shushan and Media (Saadia Gaon). Other sources identify it with the area between the Tigris and India (Yov'loth 9:2).

  Identified with Assyria (cf. Josephus). See Genesis 2:14, 10:11. Their territory was basically east of the Tigris.

  He was the ancestor of Abraham (see Genesis 11:10). Josephus states that he was the ancestor of the Chaldeans, who lived on the lower Euphrates. In Hebrew, the Chaldeans were known as Casdim (see note on Genesis 11:28). They lived near the Persian Gulf (Yov'loth 9:4). The Targum translates the name as Arphasdai (Targum on 1 Chronicles 1:17,18). See Herodotus 6:5.

  Josephus identifies this with Lydia, south of the Black Sea (see Herodotus 7:74).

  Ancestor of Aramaea (from where the language Aramaic comes), to the northeast of the Holy Land, approximately where Syria is now. Josephus states that the Greeks called the Aramaeans Syrians. Its capital was Damascus (Isaiah 7:8). It also included the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Yov'loth 9:5). Laban was thus called an Aramaean (Genesis 22:20, 24:4, cf. Deuteronomy 26:5). Aram was important because of its association with Abraham's family.

  Cf. Jeremiah 25:20, Job 1:1. Josephus writes that Utz founded the cities of Trachnitis and Damascus, and settled the lands between the Holy Land and Celesyria (Antiquities 1:6:4). Other sources identify Utz with Armatyai (Targum on 1 Chronicles 1:17), which is most probably the modern Armannia (Romania, near Constantinople). See Targum on Lamentations 4:21, 1 Chronicles 1:42, Job 1:1. See note on Genesis 10:23 'Chul'.

  Josephus states that Chul founded Armenia, a land to the south of the eastern Black Sea. See Herodotus 7:73.

  According to Josephus, the founder of the Bactrian nation.

  In 1 Chronicles 1:17 it is Meshekh (see Genesis 10:2). Josephus identifies it with Charax Spanisi. Other sources state that it is the land in the area of Mount Mash in Mesopotamia, north of Netzivim (Kesseth HaSofer).

  Ancestor of the Hebrews. See note on Genesis 10:21. He was a prophet (Rashi).

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