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Leviticus Chapter 12
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12:1 God spoke to Moses, telling him
12:2 to speak to the Israelites, relating the following:

When a woman conceives and gives birth to a boy, she shall be ritually unclean for seven days, just as she is unclean during the time of separation when she has her period.

12:3 On the eighth day, [the child's] foreskin shall be circumcised.
12:4 Then, for 33 additional days, she shall have a waiting period during which her blood is ritually clean. Until this purification period is complete, she shall not touch anything holy and shall not enter the sanctuary.
12:5 If she gives birth to a girl, she shall have for two weeks the same ritually unclean status as during her menstrual period. Then, for 66 days after that, she shall have a waiting period during which her blood is ritually clean.
12:6 When her purification period for a son or a daughter is complete, she shall bring to the priest, to the Communion Tent entrance, a yearling sheep for a burnt offering, and a young common dove, or a turtle dove for a sin offering.
12:7 [The priest] shall offer [the sacrifice] before God and atone for [the woman], thus cleansing her of the blood coming from her womb. This law applies whether a woman gives birth to a boy or to a girl.
12:8 If [the woman] cannot afford a sheep, she shall bring two turtle doves, or two young common doves, one for a burnt offering and one for a sin offering. The priest shall then make atonement for her, and she shall be clean.


God spoke...
  After discussing unclean animals, the Torah now discusses human uncleanness; see Leviticus 7:21, 11:1.

time of separation...
  (Saadia; Rashbam). See Leviticus 15:19-24. Or, 'when she has her periodic discharge' (Rashi); or, 'when she has her periodic sickness' (Rashi; Ibn Ezra; Ramban).

On the eighth day...
  See Genesis 17:12.

for 33 additional days
  Making a total of 40.

her blood is ritually clean
  That is, even if the woman experiences vaginal bleeding during this time, she does not have the status of a menstruant woman (Niddah 35b; Yad, Issurey Biyah 4:5; Rashbam). The current practice, however, is to consider the woman unclean if she bleeds, even during the latter 33 days (Yad, Issurey Biyah 11:5-7; Turey Zahav, Yoreh Deah 194:1).

for 66 days after that
  Making a total of 80 days.

a young common dove...
  See note on Leviticus 1:14.

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