Noah's Children and the Titans
||Man began to increase on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them.
||The sons of God saw that the daughters of man were good, and they took themselves wives from whomever they chose.
||God said, 'My spirit will not continue to judge man forever, since he is nothing but flesh. His days shall be 120 years.'
||The titans were on the earth in those days and also later. The sons of God had come to the daughters of man and had fathered them. [The titans] were the mightiest ones who ever existed, men of renown.
The Decree Against Humanity
||God saw that man's wickedness on earth was increasing. Every impulse of his innermost thought was only for evil, all day long.
||God regretted that He had made man on earth, and He was pained to His very core.
||God said, 'I will obliterate humanity that I have created from the face of the earth - man, livestock, land animals, and birds of the sky. I regret that I created them.'
||But Noah found favor in God's eyes.
Noah and his Times
||These are the chronicles of Noah:
Noah was a righteous man, faultless in his generation. Noah walked with God.
||Noah fathered three sons: Shem, Ham and Yefeth.
||The world was corrupt before God, and the land was filled with crime.
||God saw the world, and it was corrupted. All flesh had perverted its way on the earth.
The Great Flood
||God said to Noah, 'The end of all flesh has come before Me. The world is filled with [man's] crime. I will therefore destroy them with the earth.
||'Make yourself an ark of cypress wood. Divide the ark into compartments. Caulk the inside and outside with pitch.
||This is how you shall construct it: The ark's length shall be 300 cubits, its width 50 cubits, and its height 30 cubits.
||Make a skylight for the ark. Make it slanted, so that it is one cubit [wide] on top. Place the ark's door on its side. Make a first, second and third [deck].
||'I Myself am bringing the flood. Water shall be on the earth to destroy from under the heavens all flesh having in it a breath of life. All that is on land will die.
||But I will keep My pledge that you will come into the ark. You will be together with your sons, your wife, and your sons' wives.
||'From all life, all flesh, bring two of each kind into the ark to live with you. They shall be male and female.
||From each separate species of bird, from each separate species of livestock, and from each separate species of land animals, bring to yourself two of each kind to live.
||Take with you all the food that will be eaten, and keep it in storage. It shall be food for you and [the animals].'
||Noah did all that God had commanded him. He did it [exactly].
|sons of God|
According to some, these were the fallen angels (Josephus 1:3:1, see note on Genesis 6:4). Others translate this as 'sons of the rulers' or 'judges' (Targum, Rashi. See note on Genesis 3:5). Still others say that the 'sons of God' are the descendants of Seth, while the 'sons of man' are the descendants of Cain (Ibn Ezra).
Nefilim in Hebrew, literally 'fallen ones.' They were called this because they were the sons of the fallen angels (Targum Yonathan). See Numbers 13:33.
Tamim in Hebrew. The word can be translated as whole, unblemished, perfect, innocent, pious, or honest.
From the Hebrew root shachath. The word has the connotation of decadence, perversion, destruction, and damage. It is especially used to denote sexual immorality and idolatry (Rashi).
(Rashi). Chamath in Hebrew. The word also denotes immorality, violence, oppression, cruelty, and outrage.
Tevah in Hebrew, literally a box. This indicates that it did not have the shape of a boat (Abarbanel).
Gopher in Hebrew. This word is usually translated as cypress, since it is assumed that the Greek word for cypress, kyparissos (from kaphar or gaphar), is derived from the Hebrew. The commentaries also state that it is a species of pine (Abarbanel), or boxwood (Ibn Janach, based on Saadia Gaon). The Targum renders it as kadrom or kadros, which the Talmud defines as a species of cedar (Rosh HaShanah 23a). The Talmud itself translates gopher as mabliga or golmish, both species of cedar (Sanhedrin 108b, Rosh HaShanah 23a; cf. Arukh s.v. Adar). The Septuagint, however, translates it as 'squared timber.'
Kofer in Hebrew. The word also denotes asphalt or bitumen. See Genesis 11:3.
A cubit is approximately 18 inches, so the dimensions of the ark would have been 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high. Some authorities maintain that the cubit is as much as 24 inches.
Tzohar in Hebrew. Others say that it was a luminous stone (Rashi).
|Make it slanted...|
Literally, 'finish it to a cubit on top.'
Mabul in Hebrew. This word is used only to denote the Great Flood in the time of Noah. Some say that it comes from the root naval, denoting death (as in nevalah); and hence, a mabul is a killing agent (Radak, Sherashim, s.v. Naval; Hirsch). Others maintain that it comes from the roots balah (to wear out, grind down), balbal (to confuse, mix up), or yaval (to transport). It is also related to the root balal, to mix or stir.
B'rith in Hebrew, usually translated as covenant.
Not in text, but implied (Ramban).