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Leviticus » Chapter 11
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The Dietary Laws
11:1 God spoke to Moses and Aaron, telling them
11:2 to speak to the Israelites, and convey the following to them:

Of all the animals in the world, these are the ones that you may eat:

11:3 Among mammals, you may eat [any one] that has true hooves that are cloven and that brings up its cud.
11:4 However, among the cud-chewing, hoofed animals, these are the ones that you may not eat:

The camel shall be unclean to you although it brings up its cud, since it does not have a true hoof.

11:5 The hyrax shall be unclean to you although it brings up its cud, since it does not have a true hoof.
11:6 The hare shall be unclean to you although it brings up its cud, since it does not have a true hoof.
11:7 The pig shall be unclean to you although it has a true hoof which is cloven, since it does not chew its cud.
11:8 Do not eat the flesh of any of these animals. [At this time] do not touch their carcasses, since they are unclean to you.
11:9 This is what you may eat of all that is in the water:

You may eat any creature that lives in the water, whether in seas or rivers, as long as it has fins and scales.

11:10 [On the other hand], all creatures in seas and rivers that do not have fins and scales, whether they are small aquatic animals or other aquatic creatures, must be avoided by you.
11:11 They will [always] be something to be shunned. You must avoid them by not eating their flesh.
11:12 Every aquatic creature without fins and scales must be shunned by you.
11:13 These are the flying animals that you must avoid. Since they are to be avoided, do not eat any [of the following]:

The eagle, the ossifrage, the osprey,

11:14 the kite, the vulture family,
11:15 the entire raven family,
11:16 the ostrich, the owl, the gull, the hawk family,
11:17 the falcon, the cormorant, the ibis,
11:18 the swan, the pelican, the magpie,
11:19 the stork, the heron family, the hoopoe, and the bat.
11:20 Every flying insect that uses four legs for walking shall be avoided by you.
11:21 The only flying insects with four walking legs that you may eat are those which have knees extending above their feet, [using these longer legs] to hop on the ground.
11:22 Among these, you may [only] eat members of the red locust family, the yellow locust family, the spotted grey locust family, and the white locust family.
11:23 All other flying insects with four feet [for walking] must be avoided by you.
11:24 There are [also] animals that will defile you so that anyone touching their carcasses will be unclean until evening.
11:25 Furthermore, anyone lifting their carcasses will have to immerse [even] his clothing, and then remain unclean until evening.
11:26 Thus, every animal that has true hooves, but is not cloven-hoofed and does not bring up its cud, is unclean to you, and anyone touching [its flesh] shall become unclean.
11:27 [Similarly], every animal that walks on its paws among four-footed animals shall be unclean to you, and anyone touching its carcass shall be unclean until evening.
11:28 [Furthermore], one who lifts its carcass must immerse [even] his clothing and then remain unclean until evening. They are unclean to you [in this respect].

Smaller Animals
11:29 These are the smaller animals that breed on land which are unclean to you: the weasel, the mouse, the ferret,
11:30 the hedgehog, the chameleon, the lizard, the snail, and the mole.
11:31 These are the small animals that are unclean to you; whoever touches them when they are dead shall remain unclean until evening.
11:32 If any of these dead animals falls on anything, such as wooden vessels, clothing, leather goods, sacks, or any other article with which work is done, then [that article] must be immersed in a mikvah, and remain unclean until evening, whereupon it becomes clean.
11:33 If any of [these dead animals] falls on the inside of a clay vessel, then anything inside it becomes unclean, and [the vessel itself] shall be broken.
11:34 Thus, any usual food that has [once] been wet with water shall become unclean. Any usual beverage in a vessel [likewise] becomes unclean.
11:35 Thus, anything upon which their dead bodies fall shall be unclean. In such a case, even an oven or range is unclean, and must be broken down, since it otherwise remains unclean to you.
11:36 The only thing that shall [always] remain ritually clean is a mikvah of water, whether it is a [man-made] pit or a [natural] spring. Any other [water] that comes in contact with the dead bodies [of these animals] shall become unclean.
11:37 If their dead bodies fall on any edible seeds that are planted, [the seeds] remain ritually clean.
11:38 However, if water has [once] been placed on [such unplanted] seeds, and then the dead body of [any of these animals] falls on them, the [seeds] shall be unclean to you.

Other Laws Involving Animals
11:39 If any animal that you may eat dies, anyone touching its carcass shall be unclean until evening.
11:40 Anyone eating something from such a carcass must immerse [even] his clothing, and then remain unclean until evening. Similarly, one who lifts such a carcass shall immerse [even] his clothing and then remain unclean until evening.
11:41 Every small animal that breeds on land shall be avoided by you and shall not be eaten.
11:42 Thus, you may not eat any creature that crawls on its belly, or any small animal with four or more feet that breeds on land. They are [all] things that must be avoided.
11:43 Do not make yourselves disgusting [by eating] any small creature that breeds. Do not defile yourselves with them, because it will make you spiritually insensitive.
11:44 For I am God your Lord, and since I am holy, you must [also] make yourselves holy and remain sanctified. Therefore, do not defile your souls [by eating] any small animal that lives on the land.
11:45 I am God, and I brought you out of Egypt to be your God. Therefore, since I am holy, you must [also] remain holy.
11:46 This then is the law concerning mammals, birds, aquatic creatures and lower forms of terrestrial animals.
11:47 [With this law, you will be able] to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between edible animals and animals which may not be eaten.


God spoke...
  This explains Leviticus 7:21. Narrative continues in Leviticus 16:1.

Of all the animals...
  See Deuteronomy 14:3-21.

true hooves
  (Saadia; Rashbam; Ibn Ezra; Ibn Janach; Ralbag). Maphreseth parsah in Hebrew. Or, 'that has cloven hooves' (Targum; Rashi; Radak, Sherashim).

that are cloven
  (Saadia, etc.). Or, 'completely split' (Rashi; Radak, Sherashim).

does not have a true hoof
  (see Leviticus 11:3). The hooves of the camel are so reduced that they are like claws, and the padded soles support most of the weight. Some, however, understand the padded sole to be the 'hoof' here, and translate it, 'does not have a cloven hoof' (Rashi).

  Hyrax syriacus or Procavia capens syriaca. Shafan in Hebrew; chiorogryllios in Greek, (Septuagint); tafan in Arabic. The hyrax is a small mammal, around 20 inches long, living in the Negev mountains. It has short feet, covered with elastic, a flexible tail-less body, and pads. It nests in the clefts of rocks (Psalms 104:18), and lives in small groups (Proverbs 30:26). Since it has a maw like a ruminant, it is considered to 'bring up its cud.'

Saadia similarly translates it into the Arabic wabr, denoting the hyrax or rock badger (cf. Malbim). Other sources translate it as a coney or jerboa.

  or rabbit. Arneveth in Hebrew. Dasypous in Greek (Septuagint), literally, 'hairy foot,' but translated as lepus, a hare, in Latin (Vulgate). This is the angora rabbit (Dryctolagus cuniculus) whose wool is prized (Shabbath 27a). It could be considered to 'bring up its cud' since it regurgitates its food in the early morning hours and then eats it again.

At this time
  In the desert the Israelites had to maintain a standard of purity; cf. Numbers 5:2. Similarly, during festivals when the people gathered in Jerusalem, they were forbidden to defile themselves (Rosh HaShanah 16b; Rashbam). Although this was not actually a negative commandment, it would render a person unclean (Ramban).

seas or rivers
  Salt or fresh water (Midrash HaGadol; Ralbag).

small aquatic animals
  (Rashi). Sheretz haMayim in Hebrew. Some say that this expression denotes animals that reproduce assexually (Ibn Ezra). It may possibly include all invertebrates.

other aquatic creatures
  Larger creatures (Rashi), or those that reproduce sexually (Ibn Ezra). This includes aquatic mammals (Sifra).

  Sheketz in Hebrew. Also denoting vermin, or something that is abhorrent, detested, shunned, repulsive, or loathesome.

  Even when the laws of purity do not apply. (Cf. Ralbag; Leviticus 11:8).

  Nesher in Hebrew;aetos in Greek (Septuagint); aigle in French (Chizzkuni). It is described as having large wings and long pinions (Ezekiel 17:2,3) and living long (Psalms 103:5).

Some sources, however, point out that the eagle does not fit the description of the nesher given in the Talmud (Tosafoth, Chullin 63a, s.v.Netz). Moreover, the nesher is described in scripture as bald (Micah 1:16), and as a carrion-eating bird (Job 39:27-30). Therefore, some identify the nesher as the griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), the largest carnivorous bird in Israel, with a wing span that often reaches as much as 10 feet.

  Peres in Hebrew; grypha in Greek (Septuagint), gryphum in Latin. Identified as the ossifrage (King James), which is Latin for bone breaker (cf. Toledoth Yitzchak); oscopla in Old French (Chizzkuni); akav in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Ezra; Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim). The ossifrage (Gypaetus barbatus grandis) is the largest European bird of prey, ranging in the mountainous regions from the Pyrenees to India, and resembling both the eagle and the vulture. However, the Torah is not naming exact species, but broad categories.

The Talmud describes the peres as living in uninhabited regions (Chullin 62b). Some identify it with the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) that lives in the Holy Land.

  Azniyah in Hebrew; aliaietos in Greek (Septuagint); orfraie in French (Chizzkuni). The osprey, sea eagle or fish hawk (Pandion haliaetus) is a large hawk that feeds on fish. It is found far from people (Chullin 62a), and in ancient times, dusters were made from its wings (Kelim 17:14; Rambam ad loc.)

Other sources identify the azniyah with the albatross (abitroce in Old Spanish; Toledoth Yitzchak). Others say that it is the black vulture, of which two species live in the Holy Land, Aegypius tracheliotus, which has a bright-colored belly, and the rare Aegypius monachus, which is dark brown.

  Da'ah in Hebrew, ra'ah in Deuteronomy 14:13 (Chullin 63b; Yad, Maakhaloth Assuroth 1:14 Ralbag). Iktinos in Greek (Septuagint); milvus in Latin (Vulgate); chada in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). The kite (Milvus migrans) is a hawklike bird that eats mice, hares and carrion. It is thus described as flocking over corpses (Isaiah 34:15), and grabbing meat from the hand (Bava Metzia 24b).

Other sources, however, identify the da'ah with the vulture (Ralbag; Toledoth Yitzchak), vastoir in Old French (Chizzkuni).

  Ayah in Hebrew; gyph in Greek (Septuagint); a bird like the vulture or buzzard, (cf. Ibn Janach). Other sources translate it into Old Spanish as agasa (Radak, Sherashim), ansa (Ralbag) or garsa, which have variously been identified with the goose, magpie or woodpecker. Saadia translates it as tzadi, a kind of owl.

raven family
  Or crow family. Orev in Hebrew; corbeau in French (Tosafoth, Chullin 62a, s.v. Mipney; Chizzkuni).

  Bath yaanah in Hebrew; stouthion in Greek (Septuagint), autruche in French (Chizzkuni). The Targum translates it as naamitha, and the Mishnah notes that vessels were made of its large eggs (Kelim 17:14; Hai Gaon, Rosh, Bertenoro, ad loc.).

The scripture describes the bath yaanah as living in desolate places (Isaiah 34:13), and emitting a mournful cry (Micah 1:8; cf. Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag; Toledoth Yitzchak). Therefore, some identify it with the owl, particularly the dark desert eagle owls (Bubo bubo ascalaphus), which call back and forth, as if answering (anah) one another.

  Tachmas in Hebrew; glaux in Greek (Septuagint); yiyah in Old French (Chizzkuni); ofula in Old Spanish (Ralbag); kh'taf in Arabic (Saadia).

Others identify it with the falcon (Falco tinnunculus kestrel) which lives in the Holy Land.

  Shachaf in Hebrew. laros in Greek (Septuagint); moison in Old French (Chizzkuni, equivalent to the modern French mouette). The gull is commonly found in the Holy Land.

  Netz in Hebrew;ierax in Greek (Septuagint); osproir in Old French (Rashi); esparvel in Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag). Some sources question this (Tosafoth, Chullin 63a) and identify the netz with the gosshawk, astoro in Old Spanish (Arukh; Radak, ibid.).

  (Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag; Toledoth Yitzchak). Kos in Hebrew; onoraotalos (one rattle) in Greek; trua in Latin. Others identify it with the owl, chouette in French (Rashi; Targum according to Arukh; Chizzkuni). Some identify it with the little owl (Atene nocta glaux) known in Arabic as the bum (Saadia; Ibn Janach).

  Shalakh in Hebrew; katarrakues in Greek; mergulus in Latin; cormoiesa in Old French (Chizzkuni). The Talmud notes that the shalakh is a bird that catches fish from the sea (Chullin 63a). Other sources identify it with a species of owl, hibou or chouette in French (Rashi). This may be the fish owl (Ketupa zeylonensis) which feeds in the Kinnereth.

  Yanshuf in Hebrew; ibis in Greek. Other sources identify it as a falcon (Arukh, s.v. Gaz). Still others say that it is a species of owl (Radak, Sherashim), possibly the little owl, chevenche or cavant in French (Chizzkuni). According to other sources, it is the long-eared owl (asio otus) which lives in Edom (Isaiah 34:11), and winters in the Holy Land.

  Tinshemeth in Hebrew; kuknos in Greek; cycnus in Latin. Other sources identify it as a bat, chauve-souris in French (Rashi; Chizzkuni). Still others say that it is a kind of owl, chouette in French (Rashi, Chullin 63a); suetta in Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag). This is thought to be the barn screech owl (Tyto alba).

  Ka'ath in Hebrew; pelekon in Greek; kuk in Arabic and Aramaic (Chullin 63a; Saadia; Radak, Sherashim). Also given as kik in Aramaic (Shabbath 21a), which is identified as a water bird (Arukh). However, some challenge this, since the ka'ath is seen as living in the desert (Psalms 120:7) and inhabiting ruins (Isaiah 34:11, Zechariah 2:14) (Ibn Janach). It is also seen as a bird that vomits up its prey (Chizzkuni; Toledoth Yitzchak), and this description fits the little desert owl (Athena noctua saharae).

  or pie (Chizzkuni). Racham in Hebrew; rachamah in Deuteronomy 14:17 porphorion in Greek. Some sources identify it with the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), rakham in Arabic (Saadia). This is the smallest vulture in the Holy Land, and it flocks on carrion and eats insects.

  Chasidah in Hebrew; asida in Septuagint; cigogne in French (Rashi; Chizzkuni; cf. Teshuvoth HaRosh 20:20). It is a bird that is known to live in juniper trees in Lebanon (cf. Psalms 104:17). According to some authorities, however, the chasida is not the stork, because the stork is a kosher bird (Rabbenu Yerocham, Toledoth Adam VeChavah 15:21, 132b).

  (Rashi; Chizzkuni). Anapha in Hebrew; cheradrois in Greek.

  Dukhiphath in Hebrew; epops in Greek; upupa in Latin. The hoopoe is a bird with a large red and black crest, possibly cresta in Spanish (Toledoth Yitzchak) and harupa in Old French (Rashi; Chizzkuni); hadhad in Arabic (Saadia). It may also be identified with the mountain cock or capercaillie, the largest member of the grouse family (cf. Rashi, Chullin 63a, who translates it as puaon chalbia).

  Atalef in Hebrew; nukteris in Greek; khepash in Arabic (Saadia); grot in Old French (Chizzkuni). However, see note on tinshemeth.

flying insect
  (Rashi; Ramban; cf. Makkoth 16b). Sheretz ha-of in Hebrew.

that uses four legs for walking
  Or, 'that walks like a quadruped.' Insects have six legs, but members of the grasshopper family use four for walking and two for hopping (cf. Ezrath Kohanim on Sifra).

knees extending...
  Among grasshoppers, the knees of the hoppers protrude prominently above the rest of the foot.

red locust
  Arbeh in Hebrew; grad in Arabic (Saadia). According to Yemenite traditions, this reddish locust is permitted (Yosef Kapach, Halikhoth Teimon, Jerusalem, 1968, p. 218). More generally, arbeh denotes the Sudanese or desert locust (Scistocerca gregaria) which reaches the Holy Land in large numbers.

yellow locust
  Sal'am in Hebrew; Rashona in Aramaic (Chullin 65a); daba or dabai in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). The yellow locust is permitted according to Yemenite tradition (Halikhoth Teimon). The Talmud describes the sal'am as having a head which is bald in front (gabachath; see Leviticus 13:42) and long (Chullin 65b; Yad, Maakhaloth Assuroth 1:22; cf. Avodah Zarah 37a). It is therefore sometimes translated as 'bald locust' or 'long-headed locust.' This locust, the rashon, is said to resemble a human embryo in its first stages of development (Niddah 25a; Arukh).

spotted grey locust
  Chargol in Hebrew; nippulah in Aramaic; chartziyiya in Arabic, according to Yemenite tradition (Halikhoth Teimon). The Talmud describes this locust as having a tail (Chullin 65a); some therefore identify it with the long-horned grasshopper (tettigonidae), since the female has a long protuberance with which it lays eggs. The Septuagint translates chargol as ophiomaches which literally means 'snake fighter.' It may have been given this name because of its long snake-like body or tail. The name also denotes a large insect, perhaps a giant grasshopper, as is also suggested by its Aramaic name, nippulah, which suggests a nifla, Hebrew for giant. Its large eggs were used as amulets (Shabbath 6:10).

Some sources (King James; JPS) translate chargol as cricket, but this is incorrect, because the cricket is wingless, and the Talmud clearly states that all permitted locusts have wings that cover the body (Chullin 59a).

white locust
  Chagav in Hebrew; gandav in Arabic (Saadia). According to Yemenite tradition, this is a small white locust (Halikhoth Teimon). From scripture it also appears to be the smallest of the locusts (cf. Numbers 13:33).

All other...
  Even of the locust family. Since there are questions regarding identification, most Jews do not eat locusts at all (Turey Zahav, Yoreh Deah 85:1). According to Yemenite tradition, only locusts that come in swarms (cf. Proverbs 30:27) are permitted, but not those that live separately (Halikhoth Teimon). This would exclude most ordinary grasshopper species.

There are also
  (Sifra; Rashi). Literally, 'and to these' (the following).

until evening
  After immersing, as in Leviticus 11:25.

  This imparts a greater degree of impurity, since touching a carcass merely defiles the body, while lifting it also defiles the clothing (Kelim 1:2).

immerse even
  And certainly his body. See Exodus 19:10, Leviticus 15:5.

but is not...
  Like the horse (Rashbam; Ralbag). Or, 'that has cloven hooves, but they are not split below', like the camel (Rashi). See Leviticus 11:3,4.

its flesh
  (Sifra; Ibn Ezra).

  (cf. Ramban; Yad, Avoth HaTumah 1:2).

  (Rashi). Or, 'hands' like an ape (Sifra).

in this respect

smaller animals
  (Rashi on Genesis 1:20). Or, 'creeping things' (Ramban on Genesis 1:20). See next note this line 'Leviticus 11:29'. The Talmud notes that all these animals have usable hides (Shabbath 107a).

  (Radak, Sherashim; Ibn Ezra on Genesis 1:20). Or, 'creep' (Targum).

  Choled in Hebrew; galei in Greek (Septuagint); mustela in Latin (Vulgate), Old French (Rashi; Chizzkuni) and Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim); belette in French (Chizzkuni). This is a predatory animal (Chullin 52b). Some sources identify it as a martin or an ermine (Arukh, s.v. glaksinin).

Other sources, however, indicate that the choled or chuldah (cf. Targum) is a rat (Pesachim 1:2, Tosefoth Yom Tov ad loc.) khadar in Arabic (Ramban ad loc.). Still others translate it as mole or mole-rat (Arukh), khelad in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). The Talmud also notes that the chulda bores under ground and undermines houses (Bava Kama 80a; Bava Bathra 19b; Chullin 20b). Targum Yonathan translates choled as kirkushta, which means a field mouse (Mossef LeArukh).

  Akhbar in Hebrew; mus in Greek. Some sources appear to include also the rat (Chizzkuni; MeAm Lo'ez). In Arabic, the word denotes the jerboa.

  Tzav in Hebrew; huron in Spanish (Ralbag); faruita in Old French (Chizzkuni; cf. Rashi). This is an animal closely related to the grison, graisant in Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim). We have preferred this translation, since it groups all the mammals together.

The Septuagint translates tzav as krokodelos chersaios, literally, 'land crocodile.' This follows Talmudic sources that liken it to a salamander or snake (Sifra 6:5; Chullin 127a), related to another large lizard, the chardon (Targum Yonathan; Yerushalmi, Berakhoth 8:6). This is identified with the chab in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach), the dab lizard (Uromastix aegyptius). Others identify it with the thorntail lizard (Uromastix spinipes).

Other sources identify the tzav with the toad (Rashi), kröte in German (Hirsch), or the tortoise (MeAm Lo'ez).

  Anakah in Hebrew; yala in Aramaic (Targum; Bava Bathra 4a); herison in French (Rashi; Chizzkuni), erizo in Spanish (Ralbag). Others apparently identify it with the beaver (Radak, Sherashim). The Septuagint translates it as mugale, a mole, shrew mouse or field mouse.

Other sources, however, translate it as gecko, warel in Arabic (Saadia). The gecko is a reptile of the order of lacertilia, up to 5' long, with a soft speckled hide (cf. Chullin 9:2). Anakah denotes groaning, and the gecko makes a groaning sound.

  Ko'ach in Hebrew; chamaileon in Greek (Septuagint). Other sources simply identify it as a lizard (Radak, quoting Rashi), possibly a poisonous one (Ralbag).

Other sources translate it into Arabic as charon (Saadia; Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim); see note on tzav. This is said to be the monitor or monitor lizard (Varanus griseus), the largest reptile in the Holy Land, growing as long as 4 feet. Living on the coast, the Negev, and Arabah, it eats rodents and reptiles. Due to a transposition, it is possible that this is the 'land crocodile' mentioned in the Septuagint.

  Leta'ah in Hebrew; leisarda in Old French (Rashi); or 'a small lizard,' legartisa (Toledoth Yitzchak), or legramosa in Spanish (Radak, Sherashim; cf. Ralbag; Chizzkuni). The Talmud notes that its tail moves when cut off (Oholoth 1:6) and then it is paralyzed by heat but revived with water (Pesachim 88b). It is probably a member of the family lacertidae, of which four species live in the Holy Land.

In Arabic, it is translated as echaya (Saadia), the white lizard, or abretz (Ibn Janach; Rambam on Oholoth 1:7), the great gecko. The Septuagint translates it as chalaboties, from chala, a rock or claw, and hence the rock lizard or clawed lizard.

  Chomet in Hebrew; limicon or limsa in Old French (Rashi; Chizzkuni; Radak, Sherashim; cf. Chaggigah 11a; Ikkarim 3:1. However, see Bertenoro on Shabbath 14:1).

Other sources, however, translate chomet as lizard, saura in Greek; lacerta in Latin. In Arabic it is rendered as charba (Saadia; Ibn Janach), most probably the skink. The skink is a lizard with small legs, of the family scincidae, of which there are four varieties in the Holy Land.

  Tinshemeth in Hebrew; talpa in Latin and Old French (Rashi; Chizzkuni; Ralbag; Radak, Sherashim). The Targum, too, translates it as ashuth which is a mole (cf. Moed Katan 6a).

Other sources translate it as salamander (Targum Yonathan). In Arabic it is rendered as sambratz (Saadia), sam abratz (Ibn Janach), or darbutz (Ralbag), a large-headed lizard that burrows underground, probably a type of gecko.

shall remain unclean...
  After immersion in a mikvah.

  A clay vessel can become clean only if it is touched on the inside, not on the outside. Also, if it is not touched, but the contaminating article is merely inside its space, it is still contaminated (Rashi; Chullin 24b; Sifra; Yad, Kelim 13:1).

anything inside it...
  Primarily food and drink, as next comment, but not other vessels (Sifra; Pesachim 20b; Yad, Kelim 13:3).

shall be broken
  A clay vessel thus becomes clean when broken (Yad, Kelim 19:1). It cannot, however, be purified by immersion (Sifra; Yad, Mikvaoth 1:3). See Leviticus 6:21.

  If it is in a clay vessel (Rashi). Certainly if it is in contact with the dead animal itself.

  Only human food can become contaminated (Yad, Tumath Okh'lin 1:1, 3:1).

  Even if later dried off. However, food cannot become ritually unclean unless it was wet at some point after it was picked (Yad, Tumath Okh'lin 1:2).

  The verse can also be translated, 'Any usual food that has been wet with water or any other usual beverages ...' (Rashi). The ambiguity teaches that as far as readying food to become ritually unclean, other liquids have the same status as water. The other liquids are: dew, olive oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey (Makhshirim 6:4; Yad, loc. cit.).

oven or range
  Made of clay (Rashi). Although other clay utensils cannot become ritually unclean until they are fired, an oven or range can become unclean as soon as it is used (Rash on Kelim 5:1). Furthermore, a building normally does not become defiled, but an oven or range can become defiled even though it is built up and attached to the ground; it does not have the status of a building (Shabbath 125a; Rash, Kelim 5:1).

always remain ritually clean
  Therefore, it can be used for purification. As we see in the next comment, other water would become unclean upon contact with an unclean body (Malbim; Hirsch; cf. Rashi, Pesachim 16a, s.v. Yihyeh).

  See Isaiah 22:11. Here it is referred to as a 'gathering (mikveh) of water.'

man made pit or...

Any other water...
  (cf. Ibn Ezra; Ramban). Thus, no water other than that in a mikvah can be used for purification.

  (cf. Rashi). If they are not edible, they cannot become unclean (Yad, Tumath Okh'lin 1:11, see Leviticus 11:34).

  As long as food is rooted to the ground and has not been picked, it cannot become unclean (Sifra; Rashbam, Chizzkuni; Yad, Tumath Okh'lin 2:1). Moreover, even after it is picked, it cannot become unclean until at some point it becomes wet (Rashi). This is true even if it is touched by the dead animal itself (Ramban).

  Or the other liquids mentioned in Leviticus 11:34.


  Without being ritually slaughtered.

or more feet
  Literally, 'or many feet.' Some say that this denotes the centipede (Chullin 67b; Rashi).

  Or 'shunned.'

spiritually insensitive
  (Yoma 39b). Or, 'unclean.'

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