||Heaven and earth, and all their components, were [thus] completed.
||With the seventh day, God finished all the work that He had done. He [thus] ceased on the seventh day from all the work that He had been doing.
||God blessed the seventh day, and He declared it to be holy, for it was on this day that God ceased from all the work that He had been creating [so that it would continue] to function.
Man; the First Sin
||These are the chronicles of heaven and earth when they were created, on the day God completed earth and heaven.
||All the wild shrubs did not yet exist on the earth, and all the wild plants had not yet sprouted. This was because God had not brought rain on the earth, and there was no man to work the ground.
||A mist rose up from the earth, and it watered the entire surface of the ground.
||God formed man out of dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils a breath of life. Man [thus] became a living creature.
||God planted a garden in Eden to the east. There He placed the man that He had formed.
||God made grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to look at and good to eat, [including] the Tree of Life in the middle of the garden, and the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil.
||A river flowed out of Eden to water the garden. From there it divided and became four major rivers.
||The name of the first is Pishon. It surrounds the entire land of Havilah where gold is found.
||The gold of that land is [especially] good. Also found there are pearls and precious stones.
||The name of the second river is Gihon. It surrounds the land of Cush.
||The name of the third river is the Tigris which flows to the east of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.
||God took the man and placed him in the Garden of Eden to work it and watch it.
||God gave the man a commandment, saying, 'You may definitely eat from every tree of the garden.
||But from the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, do not eat, for on the day you eat from it, you will definitely die.'
||God said, 'It is not good for man to be alone. I will make a compatible helper for him.'
||God had formed every wild beast and every bird of heaven out of the ground. He [now] brought [them] to the man to see what he would name each one. Whatever the man called each living thing [would] remain its name.
||The man named every livestock animal and bird of the sky, as well as all the wild beasts. But the man did not find a helper who was compatible for him.
||God then made the man fall into a deep state of unconsciousness, and he slept. He took one of his ribs and closed the flesh in its place.
||God built the rib that he took from the man into a woman, and He brought her to the man.
||The man said, 'Now this is bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh. She shall be called Woman (Ishah) because she was taken from man (ish).'
||A man shall therefore leave his father and mother and be united with his wife, and they shall become one flesh.
||The man and his wife were both naked, but they were not embarrassed by one another.
(Hirsch). Shavath in Hebrew. Usually translated as 'rested.'
For the rest of this chapter, the Torah uses two names, Adonoy Elohim, usually translated as 'the Lord God.' In the earlier chapters, only the name Elohim (usually translated 'God') was used. According to tradition, Elohim denoted a creation with unmitigated justice, whereas the name Adonoy denotes an admixture of mercy. Since there is no simple, contemporary way to translate Adonoy Elohim, we translate it as 'God'.
Literally 'made,' Assah in Hebrew. This word, however, is often seen denoting completion.
Literally 'shrubs of the field.' In Hebrew, the association with field denotes wildness in contrast to domesticity.
Adamah in Hebrew, related to Adam, the Hebrew word for man. Both words are also cognate to adom, meaning red, and dam meaning blood.
(Septuagint). Or, 'soul' (cf. Targum).
Delight in Hebrew.
Some identify the Pishon with the Nile (Rashi). Others say that it is the Ganges or the Indus (Josephus, Abarbanel), see next note, 'Havilah'. Rabbi Aaron Marcus identifies it with the Karun, which flows through Iran into the Persian Gulf (Keseth HaSofer 121a). He also notes that the flow of these rivers could have been changed drastically by the Great Flood.
Some identify this with India (Josephus, Antiquities 1:1:3; Targum Yonathan). Marcus, however, identifies it with an area on the Persian Gulf. See Genesis 10:7, 10:29, 25:18, 1 Samuel 15:7. See note on Genesis 10:7. Significantly, there is a city Havelian on the upper Indus river, between Kashmir and Pakistan.
(Saadia Gaon, Ibn Janach, Ibn Ezra, Radak). Bedolach in Hebrew. See Targum on 1 Chronicles 1:23. Others translate it as crystal (Rashi on Numbers 11:7). Most translations follow Aquila's Greek translation, and render it 'bdellium.' This is a gum resin, very much like myrrh, obtained from various trees of the genus Commiphora of the Burseraceae family. The Midrash, however, states explicitly that it is not this herbal material (Bereshith Rabbah). In the Septuagint, it is translated as anthrax (literally, 'burning coal'), most probably a red mineral such as the carbuncle, ruby, garnet or red sapphire.
Shoham stones in Hebrew. Translated as beryl (Targum), onyx, lapis lazuli, or sardonex. See Exodus 25:7, Ezekiel 28:13, Job 28:16.
Josephus identifies it with the Nile (Antiquities 1:1:3). Rabbi Aaron Marcus says that some identify it with the Amu-dar'ya, which flows from Afghanistan into the Aral Sea in Russia, and once flowed into the Caspian Sea (Keseth HaSofer 61a, 62a). He says that it also might be the Qezal Owzan River, which flows northward through Iran into the Caspian Sea, or the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates flowing through Syria.
Usually translated as Ethiopia. Marcus identifies it with the land of Kassites, in the near east. The Kassites were an ancient dynastic family who lived in Babylonia, and are known to have ruled between 1761 and 1185 b.c.e. See note on Genesis 10:6.
Hiddekel in Hebrew. In Arabic, the Tigris is the Dicle or Dijla (cf. Targum). See Daniel 10:4.
P'rath in Hebrew. In Arabic, the Euphrates is currently known as the Firat, al Farat, and al Furat.
Or 'sides' (Rashi).
|bone from my bones...|
An expression meaning 'my flesh and blood,' see Genesis 29:14.