Reponsibilities of a Chosen People
||You are children of God your Lord. Do not mutilate yourselves and do not make a bald patch in the middle of your head as a sign of mourning.
||You are a nation consecrated to God your Lord. God has chosen you from all nations on the face of the earth to be His own special nation.
||Do not eat any abomination.
||These are the mammals that you may eat: the ox, the sheep, the goat,
||the gazelle, the deer, the antelope, the ibex, the chamois, the bison, and the giraffe.
||You may thus eat every animal that has a true hoof that is cloven into two parts, and which brings up its cud.
||However, among the animals that bring up their cud or have a true cloven hoof, there are some that you may not eat. These include the camel, hyrax and hare, which may bring up their cud, but do not have true hooves, and are therefore unclean to you.
||Also included is the pig, which has a true hoof, but does not have a cud, and is therefore unclean to you.
Do not eat the flesh of these [animals] and do not touch their carcasses.
||Among that which is in the water, you may eat anything that has fins and scales.
||But those which have no fins and scales, you may not eat, since they are unclean to you.
||You may eat every kosher bird.
||The birds that you may not eat are the eagle, the ossifrage, the osprey,
||the white vulture, the black vulture, the kite,
||the entire raven family,
||the ostrich, owl, gull and hawk families,
||the falcon, the ibis, the swan,
||the pelican, the magpie, the cormorant,
||the stork, the heron family, the hoopoe, and the bat.
||Every flying insect that is unclean to you shall not be eaten.
||However, you may eat every kosher flying creature.
||Since you are a holy nation to God your Lord, you may not eat any [mammal or bird] that has not been properly slaughtered. You may give it to the resident alien in your settlements so that he can eat it, or you may sell it to a foreigner.
Do not cook meat in milk [even that] of its mother.
The Second Tithe
||Take a [second] tithe of all the seed crops that come forth in the field each year.
||You must eat this before God your Lord in the place that He will choose as dedicated to His name. [There you shall eat] the [second] tithe of your grain, wine and oil, as well as the first-born of your cattle and smaller animals. You will then learn to remain in awe of God your Lord for all time.
||If the journey is too great for you, and God your Lord has blessed you so that the place that God your Lord has chosen as a site dedicated to His name is too far for you to carry it there,
||you may redeem [the tithe] for silver. The silver in your hand must consist of coinage, which you can bring to the place that God your Lord will choose.
||You may then spend the money on anything you desire, whether it be cattle, smaller animals, wine, brandy, or anything else for which you have an urge.
||This, however, does not mean that you can abandon the Levite in your settlements. [You must give him your first tithe] since he has no hereditary portion with you.
Tithes for the Poor
||At the end of each three year period, you must bring out all the tithes of that year's crop, and place them in your settlements.
||The Levite, who does not have a hereditary portion with you shall then come, along with the foreigner, orphan and widow in your settlement, and they will eat and be satisfied. God your Lord will then bless you in everything that you do.
|middle of your head|
Idiomatically expressed by the expression, 'between your eyes' (Menachoth 37b). See Exodus 13:9.
|sign of mourning|
Literally, 'for the dead.'
See Deuteronomy 7:6.
That is, all kinds of cattle.
Ayal in Hebrew. The Septuagint translates it as elaphon, a deer, but possibly transposed with tz'vi, below. It would then be dordada in the Greek, literally, 'bright eyes.' The gazelle is distinguished by its lustrous eyes. Some identify the ayil as the roe deer or red deer, cerf in French (Chizzkuni). It is described as an animal with branched antlers (Rashi, Yoma 29a, s.v. Lamah).
Tz'vi in Hebrew. Elaphon in Greek (Septuagint, transposed); cevral in Provanšal (Chizzkuni), equivalent to the Latin cervus, a deer.
Yachmur in Hebrew; see 1 Kings 5:3. Pygargon in Greek (Septuagint), literally, 'white rumped,' that is, the white rumped antelope. Others identify the yachmor as a large white goat (Radak, Sherashim; cf. Saadia; Ibn Janach) or a buffalo (Abarbanel on 1 Kings 5:3). See Bekhoroth 7b. Others identify it as the roe deer or fallow deer.
The wild goat (Caora segagrus). Akko in Hebrew. yaalah in Aramaic, equivalent to the Hebrew ya'el in 1 Samuel 24:3, Psalms 104:18, Job 39:1 (Radak, Sherashim). Asstanbok in Old French (Rashi; Chizzkuni); Wa'al in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). See Shabbath 152a.
A small goatlike antelope (Rupicapra rupicapra); Dishon in Hebrew; arvi in Arabic (Saadia), shagoin or shagla in Provanšal (Chizzkuni). Or, possibly, the addax, a large light colored antelope with twisted horns. Others identify it with the re'em in Numbers 23:22, rim in Aramaic (Targum; Radak, Sherashim; Ibn Janach). In Arabic, the rim is the white antelope.
Te'o in Hebrew; cf. Isaiah 4:5. That is, the 'wild ox' (Targum Yonathan; Sifri, Rashi; Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim). The Septuagint translates it as oruga or orux, either the oryx, a large straight horned antelope, or the aurochs, the 'wild ox.' Saadia also identifies it with oryx, tethal in Arabic. Chizzkuni renders it as shulia.
Zemer in Hebrew. Zarafa (from which the English word is derived) in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim; Shiltey Gibborim 53); camelepard in Greek (Septuagint), also used in English for giraffe (camelopard). Ditza in Aramaic (see Targum on Proverbs 5:19).
See Leviticus 11:3.
|camel, hyrax and hare|
See Leviticus 11:4-6.
|do not touch...|
See Leviticus 11:8. Or, 'do not touch [to eat]' (Baaley Tosafoth).
|in the water|
(Targum Yonathan). Ra'ah in Hebrew. This is seen as a species of ayah (Chullin 63b; cf. Ibn Janach). Others see the ra'ah as the kite, the same as the da'ah in Leviticus 11:14 (Chullin 63b).
(Targum Yonathan). Ayah in Hebrew, translated as 'vulture' in Leviticus 11:14.
Daya in Hebrew, the same as the da'ah in Leviticus 11:14 (Saadia; Onkoles translates both as deitha).
The order is somewhat different than in Leviticus.
Including kosher locusts in Leviticus 11:22 (Sifri; Ibn Ezra). Or, 'birds' (Abarbanel).
|that has not been...|
Nevelah in Hebrew. (See Sefer HaMitzvoth Negative 180).
|You may give it to...|
(cf. Pesachim 22b; Abarbanel).
|Do not cook...|
See Exodus 23:19, 34:26 (cf. Targum; Saadia; Bachya).
(Rashi; Yad, Maaser Sheni 1:1). This was in addition to the first tithe given to the Levites (Numbers 18:24). It was given in all years of the Sabbatical cycle except the third and sixth (see Deuteronomy 14:28).
(see Yerushalmi, Maaser Sheni 1:1; Yad, Terumoth 2:6; HaKethav VeHaKabbalah; cf. Ramban).
|You will then learn...|
By coming in contact with priests and scholars in Jerusalem (Ramban; Sforno).
|must consist of coinage|
(cf. Sifri; Bava Metzia 54a; Yad, Maaser Sheni 4:9). Or, 'take the silver wrapped in your hand' (Sifri; Bava Metzia 42a).
Or, 'old wine' (Targum). Shekher in Hebrew. Or, 'fruit wine' (Radak, Sherashim), 'mead' (Ibn Ezra), or any other 'intoxicating beverage' (Ibn Janach; Septuagint).
|have an urge|
Literally, 'for which your soul asks.'
|You must give him your first tithe|
(Rashi). See Numbers 11:24.
|each three year period|
(Rosh HaShanah 12b; Yad, Matnoth Ani'yim 6:4). This is the tithe that is given to the poor on the third and sixth year of the Sabbatical cycle, in place of the 'second tithe.' See Deuteronomy, 26:12.
For the first (Levitical) tithe (Rosh HaShanah 12b).