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Leviticus Shemini
  Acharey Mot
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 11:15  11:16
11:12 Every aquatic creature without fins and scales must be shunned by you.
Kol asher eyn-lo snapir vekaskeset bamayim shekets hu lachem.
11:13 These are the flying animals that you must avoid. Since they are to be avoided, do not eat any [of the following]:

The eagle, the ossifrage, the osprey,
Ve'et-eleh teshaktsu min-ha'of lo ye'achlu shekets hem et-hanesher ve'et-haperes ve'et ha'ozniyah.

11:14 the kite, the vulture family,
Ve'et-hada'ah ve'et-ha'ayah leminah.
11:15 the entire raven family,
Et kol-orev lemino.
11:16 the ostrich, the owl, the gull, the hawk family,
Ve'et bat haya'anah ve'et-hatachmas ve'et-hashachaf ve'et-hanets leminehu.
11:17 the falcon, the cormorant, the ibis,
Ve'et-hakos ve'et-hashalach ve'et-hayanshuf.


  Nesher in Hebrew;aetos in Greek (Septuagint); aigle in French (Chizzkuni). It is described as having large wings and long pinions (Ezekiel 17:2,3) and living long (Psalms 103:5).

Some sources, however, point out that the eagle does not fit the description of the nesher given in the Talmud (Tosafoth, Chullin 63a, s.v.Netz). Moreover, the nesher is described in scripture as bald (Micah 1:16), and as a carrion-eating bird (Job 39:27-30). Therefore, some identify the nesher as the griffin vulture (Gyps fulvus), the largest carnivorous bird in Israel, with a wing span that often reaches as much as 10 feet.

  Peres in Hebrew; grypha in Greek (Septuagint), gryphum in Latin. Identified as the ossifrage (King James), which is Latin for bone breaker (cf. Toledoth Yitzchak); oscopla in Old French (Chizzkuni); akav in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Ezra; Ibn Janach; Radak, Sherashim). The ossifrage (Gypaetus barbatus grandis) is the largest European bird of prey, ranging in the mountainous regions from the Pyrenees to India, and resembling both the eagle and the vulture. However, the Torah is not naming exact species, but broad categories.

The Talmud describes the peres as living in uninhabited regions (Chullin 62b). Some identify it with the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) that lives in the Holy Land.

  Azniyah in Hebrew; aliaietos in Greek (Septuagint); orfraie in French (Chizzkuni). The osprey, sea eagle or fish hawk (Pandion haliaetus) is a large hawk that feeds on fish. It is found far from people (Chullin 62a), and in ancient times, dusters were made from its wings (Kelim 17:14; Rambam ad loc.)

Other sources identify the azniyah with the albatross (abitroce in Old Spanish; Toledoth Yitzchak). Others say that it is the black vulture, of which two species live in the Holy Land, Aegypius tracheliotus, which has a bright-colored belly, and the rare Aegypius monachus, which is dark brown.

  Da'ah in Hebrew, ra'ah in Deuteronomy 14:13 (Chullin 63b; Yad, Maakhaloth Assuroth 1:14 Ralbag). Iktinos in Greek (Septuagint); milvus in Latin (Vulgate); chada in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). The kite (Milvus migrans) is a hawklike bird that eats mice, hares and carrion. It is thus described as flocking over corpses (Isaiah 34:15), and grabbing meat from the hand (Bava Metzia 24b).

Other sources, however, identify the da'ah with the vulture (Ralbag; Toledoth Yitzchak), vastoir in Old French (Chizzkuni).

  Ayah in Hebrew; gyph in Greek (Septuagint); a bird like the vulture or buzzard, (cf. Ibn Janach). Other sources translate it into Old Spanish as agasa (Radak, Sherashim), ansa (Ralbag) or garsa, which have variously been identified with the goose, magpie or woodpecker. Saadia translates it as tzadi, a kind of owl.

raven family
  Or crow family. Orev in Hebrew; corbeau in French (Tosafoth, Chullin 62a, s.v. Mipney; Chizzkuni).

  Bath yaanah in Hebrew; stouthion in Greek (Septuagint), autruche in French (Chizzkuni). The Targum translates it as naamitha, and the Mishnah notes that vessels were made of its large eggs (Kelim 17:14; Hai Gaon, Rosh, Bertenoro, ad loc.).

The scripture describes the bath yaanah as living in desolate places (Isaiah 34:13), and emitting a mournful cry (Micah 1:8; cf. Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag; Toledoth Yitzchak). Therefore, some identify it with the owl, particularly the dark desert eagle owls (Bubo bubo ascalaphus), which call back and forth, as if answering (anah) one another.

  Tachmas in Hebrew; glaux in Greek (Septuagint); yiyah in Old French (Chizzkuni); ofula in Old Spanish (Ralbag); kh'taf in Arabic (Saadia).

Others identify it with the falcon (Falco tinnunculus kestrel) which lives in the Holy Land.

  Shachaf in Hebrew. laros in Greek (Septuagint); moison in Old French (Chizzkuni, equivalent to the modern French mouette). The gull is commonly found in the Holy Land.

  Netz in Hebrew;ierax in Greek (Septuagint); osproir in Old French (Rashi); esparvel in Old Spanish (Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag). Some sources question this (Tosafoth, Chullin 63a) and identify the netz with the gosshawk, astoro in Old Spanish (Arukh; Radak, ibid.).

  (Radak, Sherashim; Ralbag; Toledoth Yitzchak). Kos in Hebrew; onoraotalos (one rattle) in Greek; trua in Latin. Others identify it with the owl, chouette in French (Rashi; Targum according to Arukh; Chizzkuni). Some identify it with the little owl (Atene nocta glaux) known in Arabic as the bum (Saadia; Ibn Janach).

  Shalakh in Hebrew; katarrakues in Greek; mergulus in Latin; cormoiesa in Old French (Chizzkuni). The Talmud notes that the shalakh is a bird that catches fish from the sea (Chullin 63a). Other sources identify it with a species of owl, hibou or chouette in French (Rashi). This may be the fish owl (Ketupa zeylonensis) which feeds in the Kinnereth.

  Yanshuf in Hebrew; ibis in Greek. Other sources identify it as a falcon (Arukh, s.v. Gaz). Still others say that it is a species of owl (Radak, Sherashim), possibly the little owl, chevenche or cavant in French (Chizzkuni). According to other sources, it is the long-eared owl (asio otus) which lives in Edom (Isaiah 34:11), and winters in the Holy Land.

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